Manual Tester Interview Questions

Q11: What is the difference between Verification and Validation?

Ans: The following are the key distinctions between verification and validation:


  • Verification is the process of assessing various artefacts as well as the software development process. This is done to guarantee that the product under development will meet the requirements.
  • It is a static process of document analysis rather than the real final product.
  • Verification is a methodical technique.
  • Provides an answer to the question, "Are we creating the product correctly?"
  • Errors discovered during verification needless cost/resources to correct than errors discovered during the validation step.


  • Validation is the process of ensuring that the created software product meets the business requirements.
  • It entails running a software application to do dynamic testing.
  • Validation is a product-focused method.
  • Provides an answer to the question, "Are we developing the appropriate product?"
  • Errors discovered during validation necessitate additional costs/resources. The later the problem is detected, the greater the expense to correct it.

Q12: Explain the STLC – Software Testing life cycle.

Ans: The software testing life cycle encompasses all activities carried out throughout the testing of a software product. The stages are as follows:

  • Requirement analysis and validation – The requirements papers are evaluated and validated during this phase, and the scope of testing is established.
  • Test planning – This phase defines the test plan approach, the estimation of test effort, the automation strategy, and the tool selection.
  • Test Design and Analysis – Here, test cases are created, test data is produced, and automation scripts are implemented.
  • Test environment setup – A test environment that closely resembles the real-world setting is being prepared.
  • Test execution – The test cases have been developed, and defects have been reported and retested after being addressed.
  • Test closure and reporting – A test closure report is created that includes a summary of the final test findings, learning, and test metrics.

Q13: What are the different types of testing?

Ans: Testing may be roughly classified into two types:

  • Functional testing - Functional testing entails confirming the system's functional specifications.
  • Non-functional testing — Non-functional testing involves assessing non-functional system requirements such as performance, scalability, security, durability, portability, and so on.

Based on how the testing is conducted, it can be classified as-

  • Black box testing — The tester does not need to be familiar with the system's internal design or implementation. The tester communicates with the system via the interface, giving input and confirming the output.
  • White box testing - In white box testing, the tester examines the system's internal architecture and the quality of source code based on several factors such as code optimization, code coverage, reusability, and so on.
  • Gray box testing - In grey box testing, the tester has limited access to the system's internal architecture, such as design papers or database structure. This information assists the tester in better testing the application.

Q14: What is a test plan, test scenario and Test case?

Ans: A test plan is a formal document describing the testing scope, the technique to be utilized, the resources needed, and the estimated time to complete the testing process. It is based on the required papers (Software Requirement Specifications).

A use case is the starting point for creating a test scenario. It is used for end-to-end testing of an application feature. A single test scenario can accommodate multiple test cases. Scenario testing is very beneficial when there is a time limitation during testing.

A test case is used to validate an application's compliance with its requirement requirements. It is a recorded collection of conditions containing pre-requisites, input values, and expected outputs.

Q15: Explain the bug life cycle or the different states of a bug.

Ans: In software development, a bug passes through the following stages:

  • New – When a flaw or defect is discovered, it is in the New state.
  • Assigned – When a newly discovered bug is assigned to a developer, it enters the Assigned state.
  • Open – When a developer works on a bug, it is in the Open state.
  • Rejected/Not a bug – A bug is marked as rejected if the developer believes it is not real.
  • Deferred – A delayed bug is one whose repair has been delayed for some time (for future releases) due to the problem's severity and criticality.
  • Fixed – When a developer fixes a bug, it is marked as fixed.
  • Test – When a problem is repaired, it is assigned to a tester, and the bug is noted as in Test at this time.
  • Reopened – If the tester is dissatisfied with the issue resolution, the bug is marked as Reopened.
  • Verified – If the tester believes the problem has been addressed after the Test phase, it is recorded as confirmed.
  • Closed – The bug is marked as closed after it has been validated.